Monday, August 27, 2012

Pohela Baishakh

( a short story ) Like all other nations, Bangladesh has some unique popular festivals. ( a short story ) The first day of the Bengali calendar, i.e., the Pohela Baishakh is a day of joy and celebration for the people here.( a short story )   It is observed with great festivity.  This festival is indeed embedded in our Bengali tradition.  Every year this day comes with new hopes and aspirations.  The people wait for this day comes with utmost interest and when it comes around, all the people irrespective of caste and creed welcome it( a short story ) . The whole Bangladesh then wears a festive mood, and enjoys the pleasures of festivity, and sometimes its sorrows.( a short story )
Bangla new year is traditionally a big occasion for us. This day is a government holiday. All types of economic activities stop, and the people become busy for celebrating the day. They welcome the day with a popular song-“Esho Hey Baishakh, Esho Esho’. Each and every individual starts the day with wishing happy new year to his relatives, friends and well-wishers. They never forget to have sweetmeat, and offer it to guests on the day. Business firms and shops also wish their valued customers happy  new year with sweetmeats. Sweet words and sweetmeats make the day really sweet.( a short story )
The  Ramna Batamul in Dhaka is a place where thousands of people gather to celebrate the day with fanfare. On the day, people rise very early in the morning and gather around that place to enjoy music and have panta bhat with hilsha curry. Thus they turn back in the rich cultural heritage.  Different cultural programmes as well as colourful rallies and processions mark the day.( a short story )
On day , every family, poor and rich, arranges rich food as per  capacity with a hope that the joyful moments with linger and continue throughout the year. ( a short story ) So, people never let the day be dill and fruitless.
The Baishakhi Mela or fair is a common feature of Bangla new year, it is old tradition. One the day, fairs sit everywhere – in villages and cities. The main attraction of a fair is the array of various home-made articles or cottage industry products.  All types of people – men, women and children- come to the fair and enjoy themselves. ( a short story ) People rush to foods and other things, and the place becomes crowded. Book exhibitions and dress  exhibition are also held and enhance the beauty and joy o this big occasion.( a short story )
Halkhata is another common practice which starts from the first day of the new year.  Though  this practice is on the  wane day by day, a good number  of traders still pursue this with great enthusiasm.( a short story )
Pohela Baishkh is indeed a significant day in Bengali life. It comes to drive away old pangs and pains, and go ahead with new hope. It gives people special strength to forget the previous failure and make the best in future.

National Poet of Bangladesh

( a short story ) Kazi Nazrul Islam is the national poet of Bangladesh. He is well known as the Rebel poet in Bengali literature. He was born at Churulia, in Asansol.
          ( a short story )   His father’s name was Kazi Fakir Ahmad and his mother’s name was Zaheda Khatun. His parents lost four children before his birth. So, they gave him the nick name Dhuku Mia.( a short story )
            ( a short story ) In his early life Nazrul lost his mother. For this he had struggled hard against poverty. In his boyhood he was very precocious and naughty. He was admitted to a local Primary School. But he did not obey the hard and fast rule of the school. He troubled the villagers with his boyish wicked deeds. The villagers called him “Khepa”. After passing the Primary Examination he devoted himself to religion. He became a teacher in the village Maktab. There he taught the village chidren the holy Quran. He also became a muezzin. At this time he became well acquainted with Islamic lore which influenced his later literary works to a great extent. He also entertained the village people through theatrical party known as Letto and earned and fame.( a short story )
            At twelve he fled away from home and took job of a baker boy and for that he got taka 5 per month. At this time he drew the attention of a Muslim sub-inspector of police.( a short story )  He took Nazrul to his own village home and got him admitted into a high school. The first World War broke out. He joined the War and became a Havilder.( a short story )
            He continued his writings there. He wrote several poems and prose pieces which made him famous. ( a short story ) The Regiment was banned. He returned to Calcutta. At this time he edited a magazine named Dhumketu in which he published all his revolutionary writings. He was sent to jail for one year for writing the poem “Agamani”. His famous creations are Agni Bina, Bandhan Hara, Rikter Bedan, Bisher Bansi, parlay-Shika etc.
            ( a short story ) Nazrul’s writings were full of hope, energy, aspiration and result.( a short story )  His writings awakened the sleeping people of this subcontinent. ( a short story ) It was Nazrul through whom the people began to hope for a better future. He made them conscious of their rights. He helped them to fight for independence and break the bondage of slavery and fetters of subjugation. He has establishes himself in our heart and in the annals of Bengali Literature.( a short story )

Cricket in Bangladesh

Cricket in Bangladesh has gained utmost popularity in recent times. Bangladesh has already achieved both one day and test status in world cricket that clearly holds out the strength of our cricket. However, our cricket is still suffering from various problems. We are yet to attain appreciable standard at international level. So, we have a lot to do.
Bangladesh achieved one-day status after winning ICC trophy a few tears back. It was a great recognition for Bangladesh to play in world competition. After a long sustained development we finally achieved test status, the most glorious status in world cricket.
Bangladesh cricket squad needs to be made more organized. Its batting line as well as bowling line must be strengthened further to fight the powerful sides. What is most dismal is that Bangladesh team is often easily defeated by the powerful opponents. It cannot live up to the required manifestation of skill.
But the condition can be changed with proper training and practice of our cricketers. A good coach can make a big difference. A world famous coach may be employed and more rigorous practice sessions should be held. Only strenuous field practice can make our cricket team ream reach the desired standard.
Good cricketers need to be searched around the country and picked up for the national team. Hence domestic cricket tournaments should regularly be organized. To make young talents, tournaments should also be held at the schools, colleges and universities. Young cricketers world emerge from there tournaments, and some of them may well find their place in the national team.
Cricket is now a popular game in Bangladesh. People in the cities and villages equally love cricket. Cricket has been so popular that football and other playing grounds are gradually being transformed into cricket grounds. The Banga Bandhu National Stadium is now used for cricket. Nevertheless, we need more cricket ground in every district, and regular  tournaments  should be a cricket ground in every district, and regular tournaments should be organized there.
The young people should devote most of their time to study and acquiring knowledge. But if such time is taken up by seeing a game or thinking of the various aspects of the game, and living in imagination with the joys of its victories and sorrows of its defeats, it will bring upon them some disastrous effects. It will decrease their talent in other fields. It will prevent the efflorescence of their genius, and it will have adverse effects on their bodily and mental health in general. If such conditions prevail for a long time, we will have a people of expert cricketers, but intellectually barren and emotionally unbalanced.

Sunday, August 26, 2012

Mother Teresa

( a short story ) Mother Teresa was born on 26th August, 1910. ( a short story ) Her father’s was an Albanian and he was a builder. She was born in Skopje in Macedonia. She was the third child of her parents. She was very polite and modest. She wanted to be a helping hand to the destitute. At the age of 18 she joined the order of the sisters of our lady of Loreto in Ireland. In 1928 she began her journey to India.( a short story )  In 1931 she began teaching at a Calcutta girls’ school. To make her vision fruitful she founded `Nirmal Hriday’ in 1952. In 1953 she started an orphanage. ( a short story ) Then she set up a missionary too. The missionary helped the wounded, the diseased and the helpless. In 1957 she and her missionaries of charity began working with the helpless. She continued all her programmers with the fund she collected from the charity of some wealthy people. ( a short story ) As recognition of her work she got Nobel Prize in 1973. She breathed her last on 5th September 1997 at the age of 87, At her death, the world lost a great woman.( a short story )

Social service

Man is a social creature. This means he cannot live alone he lives in a society consisting not of his own family but also of some other families. And the peace and happiness of each individual depend to a great extent upon what he gets from the other members of his society. So we are all indebted to one another in some form or another. Thus arises the duty of social service, ----the duty of paying back a part of our obligations by doing some service to society.
This service may be done in different forms. The rich may help the society by founding school and colleges and hospitals. The educated may take up the work of bringing the light of knowledge to the illiterate poor, or teaching then lessons on morality, sanitation and a good, healthy life. Even the poor and illiterate may offer words of kindness and sympathy to persons in distress, or physical service such as nursing the sick and doing relief work. There is, therefore, no excuse for anybody if he fails in this duty of social service.
Fortunately for mankind, this instinct of social service is natural to many. This is why beggars manage to live; natural disasters like flood and cyclone and earthquake find bands of volunteers for relief work; the Bharat Sevasram Sangha and Ramkrishna Mission do not lack devoted workers for their acts of Philanthropy. The Red Cross, the World Health Organization, the Rockfeller Foundation, etc. are social service institutions, serving the people of the whole world.
The students have an important role in this respect. They have idealism and great energy. This is why they are the first to come forward in works of social service. And though learning is their chief concern, this spirit of service should be encouraged. There is a proposal to make social service for a certain period compulsory for every student. There are many practical difficulties in giving effect to the proposal. But it is open to objection from another point of view, Compulsion generates a spirit of revolt. So compulsory service, instead of producing the desired result, may make it unpopular. Social service is effective only when it is voluntary. What is wanted is to make the students conscious of their obligations to society. This done, they will not be found wanting.

World Cup Football

The most eagerly awaited event of the sports world 
today is perhaps the World Cup Football. It is 
held under the auspices of FIFA, the body that controls the game.
Though the Federation de Internationals 
Football Associations (FIFA) was 
founded in Paris in 1904, the first 
World Cup Football tournament, the competition 
for global supremacy in football, was held as late
 as in 1930 in Monteverdi, Uruguay. The host 
country Uruguay won the trophy that year. Since
 then the tournament is held every fourth year with
 the final rounds played in a predetermined place. Football
 lovers all over the world assemble in the arena with their national flags, 
banners, festoons and even with musical instruments to cheep up their teams.
The World Cup Football tournament presents the game in 
its highest standard with every team putting forth its best to 
win the laurel. The spectators are enthralled by the wonderful 
teamwork and personal skills of the players. A hard fight a
nd a tussle for supremacy take the game to an unbelievable 
pitch of excitement. Different styles, tactics and skills of the world 
famous players are always a treat to watch. The managers 
choose their players and train them in their strategy well in advance as 
a well drilled army. No nation wants to give an inch without a fight. 
This resulted in several astonishing results like the defeat of the strong
 Brazilian team by Italy 3 to 2 in 1982.
The tournament was first won by Uruguay in 1930. Since the
 the winners were Italy (thrice, 1934, 1938, and 1982), Brazil 
(4 times, 1958, 1962 and 1970 and 1994), W. Germany (thrice, 
1954, 1974 and 1990), England (once, 1966), Uruguay 
(once again in 1950) and Argentina (twice, 1978 and 1986).
 The original trophy, the Jules Rimet Cup, was forever by Brazil
 after becoming the winner of the tournament for the third time in 
1970. Since then FIFA has replaced the original cup by FIFA World Cup. 
With the tournament are associated the names of some immortals
 like Pele, Stanley Mathews, Garnicha, Eusobio, Bobby Moore,
 Paolo Rosi, Maradona etc.
Previously football was a game of skill, strength, stamina, 
speed and shooting ability. But the recently concluded 
tournament has proved beyond doubt that without a 
good game plan no team can ever win the world cup.

Friday, August 24, 2012

The economic condition of Peasants in Bangladesh

Economic condition: Though they feed the nation, and run country’s economy, the overall condition of our peasants are very miserable. Many of our peasants cannot afford a square meals. They cannot send their children to school because they cannot bear the educational expenses. They do not get good house, pure drink, costly clothes or any modern luxuries or comforts. They are ill-fed, ill-clad, and ill-treated in the society. They are poor, illiterate, supersite’s and they suffer from malnutrition and various diseases.
Govt. and wealthy persons in the society must do something effective for our unhappy peasants. Mostly, our peasants do not get due prices of their agricultural produce. So they remain poor. Govt. can take a comprehensive distribution system of country’s cultivable land and bring landless and small peasants under beneficiary projects. They should trained about new and scientific methods of cultivation. They should be given loans without interest or on easy terms. And in must be ensured that the peasants get right price of their corps. Otherwise, their condition will remain unchanged.

The condition of solvent Peasants of Bangladesh

Solvent peasant: A minority of peasants are very rich. They are landlords because they have large acres of land. They produce more than what they need. So they can lead a prosperous and easy-going life. The landlords are influential people in the villages. They also contribute to various developmental initiative of the villagers like setting up schools, mosques colleges, dispensaries, orphanage etc.
Knowledge: The learning methods of our peasants are relatively obsolete. They still use bullocks and plough to till the lands. They do not have knowledge about proper seed time, insecticide, and harvesting. As a result, they often do not get good crops. They depend on nature for good harvest instead of applying new and scientific methods in the fields. They are often unable or unwilling to apply new methods and approach in cultivation. And they are also often unable to buy tractors, machinery, sufficient fertilizers and insecticides, and irrigate their lands. All these are responsible for poor agricultural output and poor conditions of our peasants.

Peasants of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural country. Agriculture is the base of our economy and rural life. Agriculture still employs bulk of our population. So peasants are the backbone of our agriculture output, our food production and agro-based industries. Peasants are the vital element of our country and economy.
      A peasant is a farmer who owns or leases a piece of land and which he cultivates himself. In our country most of the peasants are generally small farmers. They possess a small piece of land. They have no ploughs and bullocks to cultivate their lands. Many of them do not have enough land to grow enough food for themselves. In that case they cultivate the lands of those who have large areas of lands and do not cultivate themselves. They get a stipulated share of the produce. The share is generally half or one third of the total produce.
There are some landless peasants. They till other’s land and take a share of the produce. They work hard to manage subsistence for their family. Though they work hard in the rain and sun, they lead a very miserable life.

My Motherland

The name of our country is Bangladesh. It is a small country situated in the south East Asia. Its area is 1,47,570 square kilometers. Dhaka is the capital of our country.
        Bangladesh is a land of over population. More than 17 corer people live here. Most of them are Muslims. The others are Hindus, Buddhists and Christians. People of all communities live here with peace and amity. The state language of the country is Bangla. There are also a number of tribal dialects. The national dress for men is pajama and Punjabi and for women, sari. But the educated people wear trousers and shirts and young women salwar and kamiz. Most people wear lungi and shirt.
        Bangladesh is a land of rivers. The Padma, the Mwghna and the Jamuna are the big rivers of the country. Her land is very fertile. Various kinds of crops and fruits are grown here. Rice is our staple food and jute and tea are our main cash crops. Mangoes, jack-fruits, pine-apples, papaws, coconuts, oranges, palms, guavas, bananas are very delicious and nutritious fruits of Bangladesh.
        There are six seasons in our country. They are summer, rain, autumn, late autumn, winter and spring. Every year natural calamities like flood, cyclone, draught etc. visit this country. Its climate is hot and humid.
        Bangladesh is a land of natural beauty. Numerous trees of different sizes have enhanced the beauty to a great extent. Flowers are the special gifts of nature. They have added beauty to the country offering their varied cooler, sweet smell and excellent charm.
        Bangladesh is the blessed child of nature. It is enriched with lots of natural resources. I am really proud living in such a beautiful country. 

Common Birds of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a land of beauty. Birds nave added to its beauty more. We sleep at night and rise early in the morning hearing the sweet song of different birds.
There are different types of birds in our country. They are different in colour, size and habit. On their habit and activities they are also classified as teasing birds tailor birds, singing birds, birds of prey, talking birds, domestic birds, migratory birds, nocturnal birds etc.
The crow is a teasing bird. It is a very common bird of our country. It looks ugly. It lives on dirty things. The kite is also of the same nature.
The swallow, the babul and the tuntuni are the tailor birds. They are called so because they build their nests with great skill like an experienced tailor.
The cuckoo, the shyama, the doel, the koel, the nightingale etc. are known as singing birds. The cuckoo is the most popular among them. The doel is our national bird.
The vulture, the hawk, the kite etc. are birds of prey. They have keen eyes and sharp nails. They live on fish and flesh.
The parrot, the mayna and the shalik are the talkig birds. If they are trained, they can talk like a man. Many people tame them.
The very common domestic birds are the hen, the duck, the pigeon etc. we get flesh and egg from them.
Besides our native birds, many birds come to our land during autumn and winter from other countries. They flock in lakes and beels and go back after winter.
Birds are our natural wealth. They may be friend to the friendless. They also eat harmful worms and insects which destroy our crops. Some birds eat up dirty things and clean nature. They also amuse us with their sweet songs.
Birds are beautiful creation of Allah. So we should be kind to them and save them from unnecessary killing.

Wednesday, August 22, 2012

Liberation of Bangladesh

Freedom is the birth-right of man. But freedom does not come down on a nation. A nation must rise itself to achieve it. Bangladesh experienced about 190 years of long British colonial rule that ended up in 1947 with the partition of Indian subcontinent and birth of two independent states viz, India and Pakistan. Bangladesh became a province of Pakistan named East Pakistan. However, the deprivation and exploitation of the Pakistani rulers created grievances and resentment among the people of East Pakistan. They rose again and revolted against the Pakistan oppressors. This time they rose for complete break up with Pakistan and voiced for an independent nation. The result is a nine month-long armed struggle against Pakistan occupation forces that culminated in the birth of Bangladesh as a free and sovereign nation in the world.
The most glorious and the greatest achievement for Bangladesh in the last century has its birth as an independent nation. Bangladesh won a flag, an identity and occupied a place in the world’s map. Bangladesh became a free and independent nation and stood upright and with dignity and honour among the nations of the world. But Bangladesh had to pay heavy price for its independence. About three millions of lives have sacrificed in the war of liberation. Many heroic sons of this soil fought bravely and achieved martyrdom to liberate their country. The country’s infrastructure, communication industry and assets were destroyed in the war.
The main reason for which the nation fought for liberation against Pakistan was the audacity and denial of the Pakistani rulers to recognize the electoral triumph of the Awami League under the leadership of Shekih Mujibur Rahman in 1970. As a result the Bengalis stood up and demanded independence.
The causes of our libteration war rooted in the social discrimination, political deprivation and economic exploitation. The people of this region had long been exploited by the Pakistani authorities like the colonial period. The Bengalis were treated like second class citizen in their own country. They were discriminated in govt. services, in business and in getting govt. right and privileges. These created anger and resentment among the Bengalis.
Political manipulation and economic exploitation were other two important reasons of liberation war. Development programmes were mainly taken up the West Pakistan and mills and factories and infrastructural development were done there for which East Pakistan provided its earning from export. Moreover, when Pakistani authorities denied to hand over power to the elected Bengalis leadership, it became obvious that it was not possible then to co-exist as two provinces and it was time for liberation. These social and cultural, economic and political factors end to our liberation war.
On 7th March 1971, Sheikh Mujubur Rahman while addressing a huge crowd in the historic race course ground declared that the struggle of this time is struggle for freedom the struggle of this time is struggle for independence. On 26 March, Major Ziaur Rahman, an officer in the Pakistan army declared the independence of Bangladesh on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from Kalurghat Radio centre. From then, the students, farmers, labourers, all and sundry joined the liberation war and after taking guarilla training, fought with the Pakistan occupation forces. Colonel M.A.G. Osmani was made the chief commander of liberation forces and the country was divided into eleven sectors under eleven army officers to conduct the war.
The liberation forces comprised former EPR members, army personnel’s, police and freedom fighters. India provided guarilla training and other support to the freedom fighters. After nine months bloody struggle, the Pakistani army surrendered to the Allied forces at Race Course ground on 16 December 1971. Thus a new and free nation was born in the world map.
Thus, after a sea of blood and lots of sacrifices we achieved our liberation from Pakistan. Today we are proud as an independent and sovereign nation. Our liberation war has gone down to history. Our liberation war is our living memory, our greatest achievement, and our pride.

A Tea Stall in Bangladesh

A tea stall is a familiar sight in Bangladesh. It is a favorite haunt for all kinds of people. It is found in towns as in village markets. In a town it is usually situated by the side of narrow streets on footpaths of roads. The appearance of the stall has something in common. The shopkeeper sits at a table or on a chouki. Around him there are shelves in which there are jars (boiums) of biscuits, chanachur, buns, or other snacks. In front of the shop, bunches of banana are kept hanging on pieces of strings. A ‘boy’ prepares tea on an over which has either coal or twigs as fuel. The kettle is always on the oven, and water boils in it. Cups are kept on a table nearby, and a small pot of water for washing the cups and saucers. There are benches inside the shop room, and some benches are also outside it. Customers sit on the benches and order tea, and sometimes some tea things like biscuits, chanachur, and banana or buns. Almost all kinds of people are found at a tea stall. A tired rickshaw puller gets off his paddling seat, and has a quick cup of tea. Even educated people, rich people are sometimes found there who are in a hurry for some business, and have no time to look for a better place for tea. Sometimes gossip-mongers haunt the place, and engage in gossips. The tea stall remains busy from early morning till late night.

Tea is a popular drink in Bangladesh

Now-a-days tea is a very common drink. It is the leaf of a green plant. It was introduced in many countries including Bangladesh from China.
The tea plant grows on hill side where there is much rainfall as well as sunshine. Water also cannot stand there. In Bangladesh it grows in Chittagong and Sylhet and in India, in Assam. Darjeeling and some other places. However tea produces in Bangladesh is of best quality.
When the tea plant grows to a certain height, it is pruned. It is allowed to the height of about six feet. The tea-plant bears many leaves. The leaves are gathered from plants. They are then dried over fire and rolled. These dried leaves are called tea.
We boil water and put these leaves in it. The leaves are then separated from with the help of a sieve. This water is mixed with the milk and sugar. We thus get a good drink.
Tea is a refreshing drink in cold countries. People have it after toil because it gives relief after labor. It produces bad results if taken in excess.
Tea is a very common drink used by millions of our people. A considerable number of people earn their livelihood by either being engaged in its production or selling it. Some sell ready tea in commercial or educational sector by using a small capital while their income is big.
It has a very great importance in the economy of Bangladesh. A considerable portion of its foreign exchange earnings is due to export of tae. Its gardens not only offer employment to people but also export large quantities of it to the markets in Europe. Tea thus plays an important role in the economic wellbeing of our country.